Standards of Practice for Tattooing and Body Piercing Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1990
Please note that the Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1990 referred to in this Standard of Practice has sunsetted and been replaced by the Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 2001. This Standard of Practice is currently being updated to reflect current legislative requirements and benchmark industry standards, however, in the interim this standard can act as a guide to minimum infection control requirements.
2. How Infections Can Occur
Appendix A: How To Sterilise Your Instruments
Successful, personal service businesses supply their clients with professionally competent, safe and hygienic services, provided in clean and congenial premises.
Proprietors of these services must become aware of the possible wider effects of the procedures they employ.
Unsafe or unhygienic procedures can not only affect the health of the client but also jeopardize the health of the operator and aid the spread of infectious diseases.
More seriously, where procedures involving penetration of the skin are not performed correctly, they can be the means of transmitting organisms that cause diseases like AIDS, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.
It is essential for proprietors to be fully aware of the potential dangers of their procedures and to understand the precautions that need to be taken to minimize the likelihood of infection.
The Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations 1990 set out the following basic principles that must be observed by people operating in establishments that provide personal services:
The purpose of this site is to help tattooists and body pierces to comply with the regulations by explaining how infection can be associated with procedures they employ and precautions they should take to protect their clients, themselves and the community.
2. How Infections Can Occur
The potential for serious infection occurs during tattooing and body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul). The needles that are used to penetrate the skin at various sites on the body can become contaminated by blood or serum.
HIV (the virus which causes AIDS), Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses are present in blood and spread by infected blood entering another person's bloodstream. This can happen during tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul), when needles used for penetrating the skin are contaminated with infected blood or serum and are not sterilized before use on another person.
The person at risk may be the next client being treated with the contaminated instrument or you, if you accidentally penetrate your skin with the contaminated instrument. This is called a 'needle-stick' injury. Contact with infected blood, serum or contaminated instruments on open cuts, sores or broken skin can also lead to infection.
Blood or serum does not have to be visible on an instrument or needle for infection to be transmitted. It is important to note: all instruments that penetrate the skin of a person, including needles and attachments such as nozzles, needle bars and tubes, must be sterile.
Some of the ways which cross-contamination can occur in tattoo and body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) shops are as follows:
Operators should be aware of the potential for unprotected surfaces and equipment to become contaminated with blood and serum during tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul). Some examples of how this can occur are as follows:
2.2 Health and Safety in the Workplace
Employers have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment without risks to the health of their employees, clients or other persons who go onto their premises. In the tattoo (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) and body piercing (dream tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) industry, this safety involves the provision of:
2.2.1 Hepatitis B Vaccination
A safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of Hepatitis B is available. Vaccination is advised for all tattooists, body pierces and staff involved in skin penetration procedures and for staff who may be involved in cleaning skin penetration instruments and equipment.
A primary vaccination course usually consists of three injections over six months. At the end of this time, a blood test can be done to check that the vaccination has been effective. It is recommended that booster doses be given five to seven years after the primary course.
Vaccination and blood tests can be arranged through a local doctor.
2.2.2 Contact with Blood or Body Fluids
Because of the risk of blood borne infection, operators and clients should avoid contact with other peoples' blood and body fluids. If contact occurs, the following precautions should be taken:
Should bleeding occur at any time in the course of a tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) procedure or accidentally, the following procedures should be followed:
3. Tattooing/Body Piercing
3.1 Preparation of Work Area and Setting up of Equipment
It is very important that you prepare the work area so as to avoid having to leave the client in the middle of a tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) procedure to get something which may be needed. This increases the risk of cross-contaminating surfaces.
Hands must be washed thoroughly according to the procedure outlined in section 5 and disposable gloves should be worn.
Packages containing sterile needles should be opened in front of the client to show that sterile instruments are being used.
To prevent surfaces from being contaminated in the event that an item has to be handled or adjusted while tattooing is in progress:
3.2 Skin Preparation
These can be applied to the skin using a spray-bottle or pump pack and wiping with a clean disposable cloth. Alternatively, skin disinfectants may be decanted from their original container into a single-use container. At the end of tattooing/body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) each client, any remaining fluid, single-use container and disposable cloth must be discarded with the container.
Alcohols in the form of sterile, disposable swabs may also be used to disinfect the skin. Use-by dates on disinfectants must be observed. The time between skin preparation and skin penetration should be at least two minutes but preferably five minutes.
3.3 Cleaning of Work Area after Tattooing
After the completion of each tattoo (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) session on a client, the following procedure should be carried out:
3.3.1 Cleaning of Work Area after Body Piercing.
After completing body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) on a client, the following procedure should be carried out:
3.3.2 Cleaning Work Surfaces
After use by each client, the surfaces of chairs, couches and the like, as well as benches, tables and other working surfaces where there has been contact with the client's skin are to be:
washed with warm water and detergent, and then dried with a clean disposable wipe; or
covered with a clean towel; or
covered with disposable paper.
Remove all protective coverings on surfaces and equipment, taking care not to contaminate the surfaces which have been protected. These coverings should be disposed of into the infectious waste bin. In addition to this, wash these surfaces with warm water and detergent and dry them with a clean disposable wipe at the end of each working day and when they become visibly soiled. If any surfaces have become contaminated with blood or any other body fluid, they are to be cleaned in accordance with section 2.2.3 in this site on bleeding.
3.4 Cleaning Tattoo/Body Piercing Instruments Prior to Sterilisation (and Any Instrument Contaminated with Blood or Serum)
Refer to diagram 1
As soon as possible after use, reusable instruments must undergo cleaning. This is a crucial first step prior to sterilisation. Cleaning should take place in the cleaning area set aside for this purpose. New, re-useable needles and instruments need to be cleaned and sterilised before use, if they are not purchased pre-sterilised.
Wear thick, heavy duty rubber gloves when washing contaminated instruments. This makes handling them safer. Care must be taken at all times to prevent any penetration of the skin or splashing of mucous membranes (such as eyes) during the cleaning process.
Carefully rinse the item in warm running water. Hot water at this stage could thicken protein material and make it stick to the instrument. Cold water will harden fats making cleaning more difficult.
Fully dismantle the instruments.
Immerse instruments in hot water and detergent in a sink. While holding the instruments under the surface of the water, scrub the instruments with a heat disinfected (see below) clean brush. This step may be carried out using an ultrasonic cleaner. Ultrasonic cleaners work by subjecting instruments to high frequency, high energy sound waves, causing soil to be dislodged from instruments and dropped to the bottom of the tank or be sufficiently loosened to be removed during the rinsing process:
Rinse cleaned instruments in hot running water.
Carefully dry instruments with a lint-free, single-use, disposable towel.
Check the condition of the equipment.
Note: cleaning materials used for cleaning equipment such as nylon brushes and pads, should be disinfected by boiling them for at least five minutes after each cleaning session. When not in use, they should be stored dry.
Ultrasonic cleaners must be operated with the lid on to prevent any micro-organisms present in the cleaning solution from becoming airborne and contaminating surfaces in the shop. They must be operated and maintained according to the manufacturer's directions and must comply with AS 2773.
It must be stressed that ultrasonic cleaners do not sterilise or disinfect instruments. However, they do provide a very safe and effective means of cleaning instruments prior to sterilisation.
3.5 Sterilising Tattoo/Body Piercing Instruments (and Any Instrument Contaminated with Blood or Serum)
Tattooing instruments which must be sterile before use are the tube, nozzle, needle, needle bar and any other instrument that has been contaminated with blood or serum. Instruments must be cleaned and sterilised before they are used on another client, and forceps used to handle sterile instruments must also be sterile. Effective sterilisation depends on the following factors:
Cleanliness - the articles to be sterilised must be thoroughly pre-cleaned to allow good contact for all surfaces to be sterilised.
Temperature - the correct temperature must be maintained throughout the articles being sterilised.
Time - the sterilising temperature must be maintained for the correct period of time. The only method of sterilisation appropriate is autoclaving. Benchtop autoclaves should conform to Australian Standards AS 2182. The procedure to sterilise instruments is outlined in appendix A. Sterilisation cannot be achieved using microwave ovens, pressure cookers, ultraviolet cabinets, boiling water units, ultrasonic cleaners, and similar appliances. Wiping instruments with disinfectant prior to use does not sterilise them.
3.6 Cleaning of Other Instruments and Articles
(Refer to diagram 2 )
All instruments and articles that are not intended to penetrate the skin, but that are used on clients, must be thoroughly cleaned before and after each use. Containers, including their lids, used for the storage of items and for the collection of dirty instruments, must also be thoroughly cleaned before and after each use. Follow this procedure with instruments and articles that can be immersed in water:
Rinse in warm water.
Thoroughly wash with hot water and soap or detergent using a good scrubbing action.
Rinse in hot water (not less than 70¡C) and allow to dry.
Store instruments in a clean, impervious, and covered container. Follow this procedure with instruments and articles that would be damaged if immersed in water, for example, the electrical handpiece:
Thoroughly wipe with clean cotton wool or a cotton pad saturated with 70 per cent w/w ethyl alcohol.
Allow to dry naturally.
Store clean instruments in a clean, impervious, covered container. Follow this procedure with garments and other washable fabrics:
Wash with soap or detergent in hot water (not less than 70¡C).
Rinse and dry or have commercially laundered.
Store items in a clean, appropriate area such as a cupboard or drawer.
3.7 Disinfectants - Should They Be Used?
With the exception of the use of 70 per cent alcohol to cleanse instruments that would be damaged if immersed in water, all non skin penetration instruments used in tattooing and body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) procedures can be brought to a satisfactory level of freedom from micro-organisms if they are thoroughly cleansed in accordance with 'instruments that can be immersed in water' (section 3.6). The routine use of disinfectants, including glutaraldehyde is no longer recommended. Disinfecting solutions that have been used by many tattooists and body piercers in the past have been found to be ineffective, have not been used properly, or have been found to be inappropriate for use in the tattooing industry. All tattoo (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) and body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) instruments must be thoroughly cleaned and sterilised according to the procedure in this site.
Note: under no circumstances should instruments be stored in disinfectants before or after cleaning or sterilising.
All references to 'bleach' throughout this site, relate to household grade bleach products with a concentration of 40,000 parts per million available chlorine (ppm avCl) or 4 per cent avCl.
To dilute bleach for a 1:4 dilution, add 1 cup of bleach (250 ml) to 3 cups of water (750 ml).
Only dilute bleach on the same day it is to be used as its effectiveness deteriorates rapidly.
To prevent deterioration, store bleach in dark, cool areas. Use-by dates on bleach products must be strictly adhered to.
Wear gloves when handling bleach, as it can cause skin irritation.
Take care to avoid bleach coming into contact with most metals as they can be easily rusted or corroded.
4. The Shop
4.1 Applications and Registrations
There are a number of things which a person should do before opening a tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) business. A person conducting a business of tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) must register with the council any premises upon which that business is conducted. Before applying for registration:
4.2 General Requirements
The shop should be planned carefully to provide client treatment areas totally separate from areas set aside for cleaning and/or sterilising equipment. In the areas where tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) is carried out and where instruments and equipment are cleaned, disinfected or sterilised, the floor, benches, shelving, fittings and furniture should be constructed of smooth impervious materials capable of being kept clean and in good repair. There should also be good lighting and ventilation throughout the premises. The cleaning area should be arranged so that dirty instruments are received in one area. All dirty instruments should be moved through the cleaning area in a one way direction so that sterile instruments, clean instruments and dirty instruments remain separate from one another. There should be sufficient bench space to accommodate equipment.
4.3 Hand Basins
A hand basin with hot and cold running water supplied through a single outlet, plus liquid soap or detergent and disposable paper towels or an air drier should be installed in the immediate area where tattooing or body piercing (Golden arrow tattoo dövme piercing bağdat caddesi kadıköy istanbul) is carried out. The hand basin must be a hands off type for example, foot operated, electronically controlled or knee operated. Note that elbow operated or surgeons taps are not acceptable.
A sink with cold and hot water additional to the hand basin should be provided exclusively for washing equipment and instruments and should be located in the cleaning area.
Clean, single-use, disposable covering material should be provided and changed between clients:
Soiled protective clothing used by you, is to be placed into a suitable receptacle, such as a clothes basket, and then cleaned as described in this site. All clean coverings and clothing are to be stored in an appropriate clean area such as a cupboard or drawer to prevent soiling or contamination. Only clean linen, garments, towels or paper strips are to be used or placed on clients.
4.6 Disposal of Sharps, Infectious Waste and Non-Infectious Waste